Cauliflower Wikipedia. Cauliflower plants growing in a nursery in New Jersey. Cauliflower is one of several vegetables in the species Brassica oleracea in the genus Brassica, which is in the family Brassicaceae. It is an annual plant that reproduces by seed. Typically, only the head is eaten the edible white flesh sometimes called curd similar appearance to cheese curd. The cauliflower head is composed of a white inflorescencemeristem. Cauliflower' title='Cauliflower' />Cauliflower heads resemble those in broccoli, which differs in having flower buds as the edible portion. Brassica oleracea also includes broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, collard greens, and kale, collectively called cole crops,2 though they are of different cultivar groups. HistoryeditIn the 1st century AD, Pliny included what he called cyma among his descriptions of cultivated plants in Natural History Ex omnibus brassicae generibus suavissima est cyma,3 Of all the varieties of cabbage the most pleasant tasted is cyma. Plinys descriptions likely refer to the flowering heads of an earlier cultivated variety of Brassica oleracea, but comes close to describing modern cauliflower. It is found in the writings of the Arab botanists Ibn al Awwam and Ibn al Baitar, in the 1. Cyprus. 67Franois Pierre La Varenne employed chouxfleurs in Le cuisinier franois. They were introduced to France from Genoa in the 1. How Long To Microwave Corn. Olivier de Serres Thtre de lagriculture 1. Italians call it, which are still rather rare in France they hold an honorable place in the garden because of their delicacy,9 but they did not commonly appear on grand tables until the time of Louis XIV. It was introduced in India in 1. England by the British. EtymologyeditThe origin of the name is from the Latin word caulis cabbage and flower. HorticultureeditCauliflower is relatively difficult to grow compared to cabbage, with common problems such as an underdeveloped head and poor curd quality. ClimateeditAs weather is a limiting factor for producing cauliflower, the plant grows best in cool daytime temperatures 7. F 2. 12. 9 C, with plentiful sun, and moist soil conditions high in organic matter and sandy soils. The earliest maturity possible for cauliflower is 7 to 1. In the northern hemisphere, fall season plantings in July may enable harvesting before autumn frost. Long periods of sun exposure in hot summer weather may cause cauliflower heads to discolor with a red purple hue. Seeding and transplantingeditTransplantable cauliflowers can be produced in containers as flats, hotbeds, or in the field. In soil that is loose, well drained and fertile, field seedlings are shallow planted 0. Ideal growing temperatures are about 6. F 1. 8 C when seedlings are 2. Applications of fertilizer to developing seedlings begins when leaves appear, usually with a starter solution weekly. Transplanting to the field normally begins late spring and may continue until mid summer. Row spacing is about 1. Rapid vegetative growth after transplanting may benefit from such procedures as avoiding spring frosts, using starter solutions high in phosphorus, irrigating weekly, and applying fertilizer. Disorders, pests and diseaseseditThe most important disorders affecting cauliflower quality are a hollow stem, stunted head growth or buttoning, ricing, browning and leaf tip burn. Among major pests affecting cauliflower are aphids, root maggots, cutworms, moths, and flea beetles. The plant is susceptible to black rot, black leg, club root, black leaf spot, and downy mildew. HarvestingeditWhen cauliflower is mature, heads appear as clear white, compact, and 68 inches 1. Forced air cooling to remove heat from the field during hot weather may be needed for optimal preservation. Short term storage is possible using cool, high humidity storage conditions. Classification and identificationeditMajor groupseditThere are four major groups of cauliflower. Italian. This specimen is diverse in appearance, biennial and annual in type. This group also includes white, Romanesco, various brown, green, purple, and yellow cultivars. This type is the ancestral form from which the others were derived. Northern European annuals. Used in Europe and North America for summer and fall harvest, it was developed in Germany in the 1. Erfurt and Snowball. Northwest European biennial. Used in Europe for winter and early spring harvest, this was developed in France in the 1. Angers and Roscoff. Asian. A tropical cauliflower used in China and India, it was developed in India during the 1. Cornish type,1. 4 and includes old varieties Early Benaras and Early Patna. VarietieseditThere are hundreds of historic and current commercial varieties used around the world. A comprehensive list of about 8. North American varieties is maintained at North Carolina State University. ColourseditWhite. White cauliflower is the most common color of cauliflower having a contrasting white head also called curd surrounded by green leaves. Orange. Orange cauliflower B. L. var. botrytis contains beta carotene as the orange pigment, a provitamin A compound. This orange trait originated from a natural mutant found in a cauliflower field in Canada. Cultivars include Cheddar and Orange Bouquet. Green. Green cauliflower, of the B. It is available in the normal curd head shape and with a fractal spiral curd called Romanesco broccoli. Both have been commercially available in the U. S. and Europe since the early 1. Green headed varieties include Alverda, Green Goddess and Vorda. Romanesco varieties include Minaret and Veronica. Purple. The purple color in this cauliflower is caused by the presence anthocyanins, water soluble pigments that are found in many other plants and plant based products, such as red cabbage and red wine. Varieties include Graffiti and Purple Cape. In Great Britain and southern Italy, a broccoli with tiny flower buds is sold as a vegetable under the name purple cauliflower it is not the same as standard cauliflower with a purple head. White and green cauliflower. Green Romanesco cauliflower. Orange cauliflower. Purple cauliflower. ProductioneditIn 2. China and India together accounted for 7. Secondary producers, having 0. United States, Spain, Mexico and Italy. Nutritionedit1. It has a high content 2. Daily Value, DV of vitamin C and moderate levels 1. DV of several B vitamins and vitamin K table. PhytochemicalseditCauliflower contains several phytochemicals, common in the cabbage family, that are under preliminary research for their potential properties, including isothiocyanates and glucosinolates. Boiling reduces the levels of cauliflower compounds, with losses of 2. However, other preparation methods, such as steaming, microwaving, and stir frying, have no significant effect on the compounds. CookingeditCauliflower heads can be roasted, boiled, fried, steamed, pickled, or eaten raw. When cooking, the outer leaves and thick stalks are typically removed, leaving only the florets the edible curd or head. The leaves are also edible, but are most often discarded. The florets should be broken into similar sized pieces so they are cooked evenly. After eight minutes of steaming, or five minutes of boiling, the florets should be soft, but not mushy depending on size. Stirring while cooking can break the florets into smaller, uneven pieces. Cauliflower based doughs for making pizza have been 3. D printed. 2. 3Cooked cauliflower. Fractal dimensioneditCauliflower has been noticed by mathematicians for its distinct fractal dimension,2. One of the fractal properties of cauliflower is that every branch, or module, is similar to the entire cauliflower. Another quality, also present in other plant species, is that the angle between modules, as they become more distant from the center, is 3. Referencesedit abcdefghijklm. Vincent A. Fritz Carl J. Rosen Michelle A. Grabowski William D. Hutchison Roger L.